The launch of Joon and the rise of Level seem to mark a new stage in the development of long-haul low cost carriers. But the characteristics of the model remain to be defined and some airlines refuse to be categorized as such. How to characterize and identify long-haul low-cost airlines in the competitive landscape?
This article (in French - "Etre ou ne pas être une compagnies low-cost long courrier ?") offers some insights on this question based on a research article written by F Christian Soyk, Jürgen Ringbeck et Stefan Spinler entitled "Long-haul low cost airlines : Characteristics of the business model and sustainability of its cost advantages" published in 2017 in Transportation Research Part A.
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